1.0 Writing Strategies Students
write coherent and focused essays that convey a well-defined perspective and tightly reasoned argument. The writing demonstrates
students' awareness of the audience and purpose. Students progress through the stages of the writing process as needed.
Organization and Focus
Establish a controlling impression or coherent thesis that conveys a clear and distinctive perspective on the subject and
maintain a consistent tone and focus throughout the piece of writing.
1.2 Use precise language, action verbs, sensory details,
appropriate modifiers, and the active rather than the passive voice.
Research and Technology
1.3 Use clear research questions and suitable research methods (e.g., library, electronic media, personal interview)
to elicit and present evidence from primary and secondary sources.
1.4 Develop the main ideas within the body of the composition
through supporting evidence (e.g., scenarios, commonly held beliefs, hypotheses, definitions).
1.5 Synthesize information
from multiple sources and identify complexities and discrepancies in the information and the different perspectives found
in each medium (e.g., almanacs, microfiche, news sources, in-depth field studies, speeches, journals, technical documents).
Integrate quotations and citations into a written text while maintaining the flow of ideas.
1.7 Use appropriate conventions
for documentation in the text, notes, and bibliographies by adhering to those in style manuals (e.g., Modern Language Association
Handbook, The Chicago Manual of Style).
1.8 Design and publish documents by using advanced publishing software and
Evaluation and Revision
1.9 Revise writing to improve the logic and coherence of the organization and controlling perspective, the precision
of word choice, and the tone by taking into consideration the audience, purpose, and formality of the context.
2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
Students combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion,
and description to produce texts of at least 1,500 words each. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American
English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.
Using the writing strategies of grades nine and ten outlined in Writing Standard
2.1 Write biographical or autobiographical narratives or short stories:
Relate a sequence of events and communicate the significance of the events to the audience.
b. Locate scenes and incidents
in specific places.
c. Describe with concrete sensory details the sights, sounds, and smells of a scene and the specific
actions, movements, gestures, and feelings of the characters; use interior monologue to depict the characters' feelings.
Pace the presentation of actions to accommodate changes in time and mood.
e. Make effective use of descriptions of appearance,
images, shifting perspectives, and sensory details.
2.2 Write responses to literature:
a. Demonstrate a comprehensive grasp of
the significant ideas of literary works.
b. Support important ideas and viewpoints through accurate and detailed references
to the text or to other works.
c. Demonstrate awareness of the author's use of stylistic devices and an appreciation of
the effects created.
d. Identify and assess the impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text.
2.3 Write expository compositions, including analytical essays and research
a. Marshal evidence in support of a thesis and related claims, including information on all relevant perspectives.
Convey information and ideas from primary and secondary sources accurately and coherently.
c. Make distinctions between
the relative value and significance of specific data, facts, and ideas.
d. Include visual aids by employing appropriate
technology to organize and record information on charts, maps, and graphs.
e. Anticipate and address readers' potential
misunderstandings, biases, and expectations.
f. Use technical terms and notations accurately.
2.4 Write persuasive compositions:
a. Structure ideas and arguments in a
sustained and logical fashion.
b. Use specific rhetorical devices to support assertions (e.g., appeal to logic through
reasoning; appeal to emotion or ethical belief; relate a personal anecdote, case study, or analogy).
c. Clarify and defend
positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, and expressions of commonly accepted
beliefs and logical reasoning.
d. Address readers' concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations.
2.5 Write business letters:2.6 Write technical documents
(e.g., a manual on rules of behavior for conflict resolution, procedures for conducting a meeting, minutes of a meeting):
a. Provide clear and purposeful information and
address the intended audience appropriately.
b. Use appropriate vocabulary, tone, and style to take into account the nature
of the relationship with, and the knowledge and interests of, the recipients.
c. Highlight central ideas or images.
Follow a conventional style with page formats, fonts, and spacing that contribute to the documents' readability and impact.
Report information and convey ideas logically and correctly.
b. Offer detailed and accurate specifications.
scenarios, definitions, and examples to aid comprehension (e.g., troubleshooting guide).
d. Anticipate readers' problems,
mistakes, and misunderstandings.